Assessment of environmental impact of population pressure and land use activities
Degradation of the environment, water and forests in the Republic of Guinea has become a real obstacle to sustainable development of the country. As an excellence area for mining extraction, Siguiri prefecture has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, accompanied by an unprecedented boom in mining activities. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on the environment in the urban municipality (Siguiri-centre) and in the two mining cities (Kitinian and Siguirini) of Siguiri prefecture. To achieve this goal, remote sensing techniques were used, Landsat 5 Satellites for 2009 and Landsat 8 for 2019 provided three categories of land cover, namely: land use, vegetation cover and water bodies. In addition, a written and face-to-face interview was also conducted to identify sources of environmental degradation and destruction. The results of the analyses indicated that land use has increased significantly in all the study areas, respectively 31%, 21%, and 24% for Siguiri-centre, Kintinian, and Siguirini, while the vegetation cover and water bodies have significantly reduced. On the other hand, the results of the interviews with the local authorities indicated that the rampant urbanization, the increasing mining exploitation and the agricultural activities are the main factors of deterioration of the environmental conditions in Siguiri prefecture. The results of this study will enable decision-makers and researchers to identify areas of investigation in order to contribute to the protection and conservation of the environment in the study areas.