Human health and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in water, biota and sediment in Nigeria: A scholarly review of literature
Obed-Ndukwu*, Ihuoma C
It is a common knowledge that heavy metals possess considerable human and ecological risk in water, biota and sediment. Notably, the human health risk assessment models includes; estimated daily intakes of the heavy metals (EDI), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) of Heavy Metals as well as the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks due to the exposure on adults, children to heavy metals in water, biota and the sediments. In accessing the ecological risk of heavy metals in water sediments and the biota; Bioaccumulation Factors, Pollution Load Index (PLI), modified contamination degree (MCD), Geo-accumulation Index (GI) and Anthropogenicity are usually employed. Consequently, the objective of this research is to perform a scholarly review of empirical literature on the human and ecological risk from heavy metals in water, biota and sediment. Documentary data with regards to the research were obtained from various journal publications and other secondary sources and were studied and reviewed accordingly. Findings of this study revealed that the risk of heavy metals human and the ecology have been exhaustively reported. However, studies on risk of heavy metals human and the ecology in Nigeria have been minimal. Furthermore, methodologies adopted in most of the studies were not clearly defined. The study recommends that more research should be performed to ascertain the human and ecological of heavy metals in Nigeria and the methodologies adopted should be appropriately and clearly defined.