The present paper reviews information from the existing literature about Mercury (Hg), a silent killer for humans and the ecosystem along with the summary of various Mercury removal techniques for commercial use. Among different Mercury forms, methyl mercury is the most injurious and UNEP stated that Mercury could never be removed from the environment as it may reside up to decades in the form of methylmercury in soil and up to two years in the atmosphere as inorganic elemental Mercury. The dose and rate of exposure to Mercury decide its toxicity and varies with its different form. So, this review focuses on assessing global sources of Hg, including its chemical and physical behaviour in the atmosphere, pathways of Mercury in the context of human health, and economical ideas for reducing all these by adopting techniques. Mercury limit should be 0.2mg/L in water stated by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In the last decade, the Indian population has been exposed to approximately 56.86 tons of Hg as per the UNEP calculation protocol. Mercury limits and standards need to be reestablished and reviewed to control mercury pollution at the source level, keeping in mind the irreversible neurotoxic effects it causes. Drinking-Water authorities need to install specific and reasonable treatment measures in affected and prone areas. Some techniques have shown good efficiency in Mercury removal such as Blue Pro technology, organic powdered activated carbon from the walnut shell, bio adsorption of mercury. The research and development need to be done more on the treatment technologies keeping in mind the climatic conditions and local availability of raw materials in the affected areas.
Ayushi Gupta, Rajani Srivastava, Monalisa Mohapatra. Mercury, a silent killer to human health and environment: A review of India . International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020; 2(4): 160-169.