Mapping groundwater potential zones in the central part of Indian Punjab
Gurkaranbir Singh, AK Jain
This research work is proposed as a contribution for developing a methodology involving various factors controlling the availability of groundwater resources, keeping in view of choosing the location of drilling in future and increasing chances of taking water more productively, thereby, satisfying the increasing demand of water locally for the people. In the present study, a fence diagram of district Ludhiana in the central part of Indian Punjab has been developed using Rockworks software based on the lithology of 171 boreholes to identify the groundwater bearing zones for future development of groundwater resources which revealed two distinct features viz. sand and clay/heavy soil. Few clay/heavy soil layers were depicted intervening the multiple aquifers while thick sandy beds made the area favorable for groundwater development. The multi parametric data comprising aquifer thickness and its permeability, depth of water levels at different locations, stage of groundwater development, water level elevations and groundwater quality for irrigation purposes was spatially analyzed and integrated on a GIS platform to generate thematic maps. Only 11.6% of area within the district had water table depth less than 10 m i.e. suitable for using horizontal centrifugal pumps. It was inferred that 15.7% and 77.5% area in the district lied in good and moderate groundwater potential zones category respectively, whereas only 6.7% area lied in poor sector, especially in the central part of Ludhiana district. Based upon the analysis, further increase in extraction of groundwater was not recommended in this area.