Fish diversity and water quality of wetlands in attabira block of Bargarh District, Odisha, India
Jijnasa Panda, Sunanda Sahoo
The State of Odisha is endowed with a number of wetlands which provide many services that contribute to human well-being and poverty alleviation. The present study is focused on the status of fish diversity and water quality in five types of wetlands of Attabira block in Bargarh district, Odisha. The sampling sites selected for study are Site 1: running wetland; Site 2: Stable and protected wetland without anthropogenic interference; Site3: disturbed and unprotected wetland with anthropogenic interference; Site 4: Paddy field wetland; Site5: Swampy wetland. The water quality parameters were studied following standard protocol prescribed by CPCB and APHA (1992). The Shannon Weiner’s diversity index was calculated for different fish diversity of above wetlands. The water quality of site 3, 4, and 5 exceeded the permissible limits as prescribed by CPCB. The pollution load could be due to several factors like agricultural runoff, mass bathing and religious activities. The percentage of fish population showed that order Cypriniformes was most dominant constituting 47% followed by order Siluriformes constituting 17%, order Anabantiformes 11.7%. The cultivable and weed and ornamental fishes were also recorded. The highest Shannon Weiner’s Diversity Index was recorded in running wetland followed by pond without anthropogenic interference, pond with anthropogenic interference, paddy field wetland and then swampy wetland respectively. As far as biodiversity status (IUCN-2018) is concerned, out of 17 fish species, 9 fish species are categorized in to least concerned, 3 not evaluated, 2 vulnerable, 1 near threatened and 1 endangered. The study thus strongly emphasized that wetland management is highly essential to restore the degraded wetlands. The implementation of different conservation measures could contribute to the increase and sustenance of fish population and water quality standard of these precious wetland ecosystems.